by A'ndrea Elyse Messer

UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. — Perfection is not everything, according to an international team of researchers whose 2-D materials study shows that defects can enhance a material's physical, electrochemical, magnetic, energy and catalytic properties.

"Electronic devices, like transistors, are usually made from relatively bulky stacked layers of metal, oxides and crystalline semiconductors," said Shengxi Huang, assistant professor of electrical engineering, Penn State. "We would like to make them with two-dimensional materials so that they can be faster, smaller and more flexible."

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Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) continue to pioneer new antenna measurement methods, this time for future 5G wireless communications systems.

NIST’s new Large Antenna Positioning System (LAPS) has two robotic arms designed to position "smart" or adaptable antennas, which can be mounted on base stations that handle signals to and from huge numbers of devices. Future 5G systems will operate at higher frequencies and offer more than 100 times the data-carrying capacity of today’s cellphones, while connecting billions of mobile broadband users in complex, crowded signal environments.

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Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a method for generating numbers guaranteed to be random by quantum mechanics. Described in the April 12 issue of Nature, the experimental technique surpasses all previous methods for ensuring the unpredictability of its random numbers and may enhance security and trust in cryptographic systems.

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"Our travels beyond the Earth propel scientific discoveries that improve our lives in countless ways here, right here, at home: powering vast new industry, spurring incredible new technology, and providing the space security we need to protect the American people."

President Donald J. Trump

AMERICA FIRST AMONG THE STARS: President Trump’s National Space Strategy works within his broader national security policy by putting America’s interests first.

The Trump administration’s National Space Strategy prioritizes American interests first and foremost, ensuring a strategy that will make America strong, competitive, and great.
The new strategy emphasizes dynamic and cooperative interplay between the national security, commercial, and civil space sectors.
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is now providing a new measurement service that can improve the quality of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and provide a path for using MRI to make precise and traceable measurements inside the human body. It culminates many years of research by NIST scientists working at the frontier of quantitative medical imaging for precision medicine.

Physicians need highly accurate images for diagnosis and treatment decisions. Quantitative parameters measured by MRI need to be both accurate and have well-defined uncertainties before they can be used for clinical decision making. That means that MRI operators have to characterize their scanners and imaging protocols using traceable standards—those that relate the measurements to an agreed-upon international reference.

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NSF funds research on driver and urban supply-chain networks to reduce congestion
Pamela Krewson Wertz

UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. — The National Science Foundation (NSF) has awarded more than $446,000 for a new collaborative engineering project that will allow drivers to make more informed travel decisions and allow government organizations to better regulate travel within heavily congested major metropolitan areas.

Terry Friesz, Harold and Inge Marcus Chaired Professor in the Marcus Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering at Penn State, is the principal investigator (PI) on the two-year study dealing with “Statistical Learning for Dynamic Traffic Assignments (DTA).”

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